Determination of Phytoconstituents and Antimicrobial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves

  • Odangowei Inetiminebi Ogidi Department of Biochemistry, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State
  • Mike NoahAyebabogha Department of Biological Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State
  • Patricia Ukamaka Eze Department of Science Laboratory, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa state
  • Omu Okiemute Department of Science Laboratory, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa state
  • Chinaza Esther Okafor Department of Biochemistry, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State


Neem (Azadirachta Indica)is a plant that has been used as traditional medicine for a household remedy against various human ailments since ancient times. The objective of this study was to determine the phytoconstituents and antimicrobial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of A. indica leaves. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was carried out using the standard method of Association of Official Analytical Chemist and the antimicrobial activity of the concentrated extracts was evaluated by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition against the microorganisms using the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of the leaves gave a positive result for saponins, tannins, steroids, glycoside, terpenoids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The antimicrobial results show that both plant extracts had antimicrobial activity against the test organisms, the aqueous extracts were found to show the greater antimicrobial effect on Shigellasp (10.0±1.0 mm), Staphylococcus sp (10.0±1.0 mm), Penicilliumsp (9.2±0.8 mm) and Mould (10.2±1.3 mm) while methanol extract shows maximum efficacy on E. coli (26±1.0 mm), Vibrio sp (10.6±0.6 mm) and Yeast (9.2±0.3 mm). Therefore, these findings support the traditional knowledge of local users and it is a preliminary, scientific, validation for the use of neem leaves for the antimicrobial activity to promote proper conservation and sustainable use of the plant resources.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, Bioactive compounds, Medicinal plant, Pharmacology


Download data is not yet available.


Hammer, K.A., Carson, C.F, Riley, T.V. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86(6): 985.

Thirumurugan, K. (2010). “Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected Indian folk medicinal plants,” Steroids, vol. 1, p. 7.

Kanthimathi, M.,Soranam, R. (2014). “Phytochemical screening and Invitro antibacterial Potential of Cassia auriculata Linn. Flowers against Pathogenic Bacteria,”

Ojewumi, M.E., Adedokun, S.O., Omodara, O.J., Oyeniyi, E.A., Taiwo, O.S., Ojewumi, E.O. (2017). “Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activities of the Leaf Oil Extract of MenthaSpicata and its Efficacy in Repelling Mosquito,” Int. J. Pharm. Res. Allied Sci. 6 (4): 17–27.

Yahia, E.M. (2017). “The contribution of fruit and vegetable consumption to human health,” Fruit Veg. Phytochem. La Rosa, LA, Alvarez-Parrilla, E., González-Aguilar, GA, Eds, pp. 3–51.

Odangowei, I.O., Okiemute, O., Precious, A.E. (2019). Ethno pharmacologically active Components of BrassicaJuncea (Brown Mustard) Seeds. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and development. 1(1): 09-13.

Biswar, K., Chatropadhyay, I., Banerjee, R.K., Bandyopadhyay, U. (2002). “Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachtaindica)”, Curr. sci, 82: 1336- 1345.

Eshrat, H., Ali, M. (2002). using “Traditional Indian anti- diabetic plant Azadirachtaindica”, Indian journal of clinical biochemistry, 17, 115- 123.

Maragathavalli, S., Brindha, S., Kaviyarasi, N.S., Annadurai, B., Gangwar, S.K. (2012). Antimicrobial activity in leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachtaindica Linn). International Journal ofScience and Nature. 3: 110-113

Sulcapriya, R., Nagini, S. (2005). “Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review: curr med chem Anticancer agents”. 5 (2): 149-156.

Kirtikar, K,R., Basu, B.D. (1987). “Indian medicinal plants”, International Book Distributors Dehradun, Vol 1: 536- 541.

Trease GE, Evans MC (2005) Pharmacognosy, fourteenth ed. Elsevier, New Delhi, India.

Aziz, F., Taqdees, M., Ifrah, I., Sayyada, G.N. (2020).Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of neem extracts on uropathogens. Pure Appl. Biol., 9(1): 148-153.

Bishnu, J., Govind, P.S., Buddha, B.B., Megh, R.B., Dinita, S., Krishna, S., Janardhan, P., Rajani, M. (2011). Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of different medicinal plants: Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Eugenia caryophyllata(Clove), Achyranthesbidentata (Datiwan) and Azadirachtaindica(Neem). J. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 3(1):1-7.

Alka, S., Jyoti, S., Siddarth, N.R., Snigdha, T., Maya, D.J., Aditya, P., Rupesh, K., Akansha, R.,Bhavya,Shivani,Sharib,Nilesh, G., Akash, (2018). Phytochemical analysis and Antibacterial properties of Azadirachtaindica(Neem) leaves extract against E.coli. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 7(4): 1368-1371.

National Research Council (2002).Neem: A tree for solving global problems. National Academy Press,Washington, D. C. pp. 31 – 107.

Bandyopadhyay, U.,Chatterjee, R., Bandyopadhyay, R.K. (1998). Process for the isolation of an active principle from Azadirachtaindica useful for controlling gastric hyperacidity and gastric ulceration. US patent No. p. 5730986.

Bandyopadhyay, U., Biswas, K., Chatterjee, R., Bandyopadhyay, D., Chattopadhyay, I., Ganguly, C.K., Chakraborty, T., Bhattacharyya, K., Banerjee, R.K. (2002).Gastroprotective effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) bark extract: Possible involvement of H+-K+ -ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical. Life Sci.71: 2845– 2865.

Asase, A., Akwetey, G.A., Achel, D.G., (2010).Ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 129(3): 367-376.

Sydney, S., Lacy, R.W., Bakhtiar, M. (1980). In: The Betalactam antibiotics Penicillin and Cephalosporin in perspective, Hodder and stongton, London, p. 224.

Cunha, B.A. (2001). Antibiotics side effects. Med. Clin. North Am., 85: 149-185.

Vermani, K., Garg, S. (2002). Herbal medicine for sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 80: 49-66.

Indhumathi, V., Perundevi, S., Vinoja, B.N., Manivasagan, V., Saranya, K., Ramesh-Babu, N.G. (2018). Phytochemical Screening And Antimicrobial Activity Of Fresh And Shade Dried Leaves Of AzadirachtaIndica. International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology 11(3): 027-032.

Damilola, E.B., Grace, O.O., Modupe, E.O., Oluranti, A., Esther, O. (2019). Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Neem Leaves and Lemon Grass Essential Oil Extracts. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(3): 882-889.
582 Views | 478 Downloads
How to Cite
Ogidi, O. I., Mike NoahAyebabogha, Patricia Ukamaka Eze, Omu Okiemute, and Chinaza Esther Okafor. “Determination of Phytoconstituents and Antimicrobial Activities of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves”. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry, Vol. 2, no. 2, May 2021, pp. 60-67, doi:10.46796/
Research Article