Journal of Innovations in Applied Pharmaceutical Science (JIAPS) <p><span style="color: #000000;">Journal of Innovations in Applied pharmaceutical Science (JIAPS) is an open access, quarterly, peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary journal; and will publish articles in various streams of pharmaceutical &amp; allied sciences. JIAPS publishes original research and review articles, Mini-reviews, Short communication, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in the fields of applied pharmaceutics</span></p> en-US <p>Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.</p> (Support) (Tech Support) Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Assessment of physical functioning in rheumatoid arthritis patients after rituximab therapy using health assessment questionnaire-disability index <p>The most frequently used instrument for measuring self-reported physical function in rheumatoid arthritis is the health assessment questionnaire – disability index. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of treatment with rituximab on patient-reported outcomes in severe rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rituximab was initiated in RA-diagnosed patients who experienced treatment failure or decreased response on the administration of conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Treatment response after 1g of rituximab infusion was assessed at &lt;6 months and &gt; 6 months follow-up period using patient-reported outcome measure tools and laboratory investigations. Functional ability was evaluated using a questionnaire and the overall disability index was calculated. It was found that all patients achieved minimum clinically important difference(&gt;0.2) from baseline HAQ value within 6 months of rituximab. Assessment of the functional ability demonstrated that the majority of the patients experienced significant improvement in all domains of HAQ-DI after rituximab administration. Patient global assessment shared a moderate correlation with almost all domains of HAQ-DI. Physical function as measured by HAQ-DI&nbsp; showed clinically meaningful improvement within 1 year of rituximab therapy. It has proven to be a safer and more effective treatment option when compared to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and has also helped in achieving better responses at a faster pace.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maria Joy Anna, Akshara Shaji, Shaniya Mathew, Suja Abraham Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Toxicity profile of chemotherapy regimens for multiple myeloma patients using CTCAE Criteria <p>Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy of B-cells of plasma cells. The increasing incidence of MM and because of the scarcity of Indian studies on this topic, a detailed study regarding the toxicity profile of chemotherapy regimens for multiple myeloma patients using CTCAE criteria is necessary. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the toxicity profile of various chemotherapy regimens in MM patients, specifically using the CTCAE criteria.Methodology: The study is retrospective and clinically based, focusing on MM patients who received different chemotherapy regimens (CyBorD, VD, VRD, TD, and RD) at the Caritas Cancer Institute in Kottayam between 2015 and 2019. Patients meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. Toxicity profiles were analyzed at two-time points: after 4 cycles of treatment (4 months) and at the end of therapy. Results: The study involved 87 patients with a mean age of 64 ± 11.8 years. The majority of patients (83.9%) had MM for less than 2 years. A total of 575 adverse events were reported and categorized based on the CTCAE criteria: 43.5% were Grade 1 (mild), 34.8% were Grade 2 (moderate), 19.1% were Grade 3 (severe), and 2.6% were Grade 4 (life-threatening). The most commonly reported toxicities included anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and peripheral neuropathy Conclusion: The study's findings suggest that while toxicities were common among MM patients receiving chemotherapy, the majority were of Grade 1 (mild) severity. Very few cases reached Grade 4, which indicates life-threatening consequences. This information can help healthcare professionals and patients make informed decisions regarding the choice of chemotherapy regimens for MM treatment.</p> Antony V R, Arpith Antony, Helan Kurian, Jeeva Ann Jiju Jiju, Timy Thomas, Jithin Sunny, Suja Abraham Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Isolation of embelin from embeliaribes berries for the development of topical anti–inflammatory preparation <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Embelin is a natural benzoquinone compound, isolated from <em>Embeliaribes</em> berries, known extensively for its anti-inflammatory properties. Due to its hydrophobic nature, it was less explored for topical preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of embelin as an anti-inflammatory agent for topical preparations as well as assess its potential to replace synthetic drugs, which can be resistant to bacterial strains. A topical preparation with embelin would be potentially more effective as well as safer than synthetic drugs.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: Embelin has been converted into its potassium salt, and a cream was developed, which was then subjected to physiochemical evaluation. The isolated Embelin and Embelin Potassium salts were characterised by various spectral analysis. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the heat-induced hemolysis and albumin denaturation. Docking scores of embelin and diclofenac were compared and the drug content per gram of cream was estimated.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The UV spectral absorption peak of Embelin&nbsp; was determined to be at 274 nm, while that of the potassium salt of Embelin was at 515 nm.. The IR &nbsp;bands were found at 1328.951cm-1,361.74 cm-1, 1616.35 cm -1,1616.35 cm -1 ,1452.4 cm -1, 748.28 cm -1&nbsp; and 2947.23 cm -1&nbsp; respectively due to phenolic OH bending, C=O stretching, aromatic ring bending, methylene bending and methyl stretching&nbsp; . The IR spectra of Embelin potassium salt exhibited similar pattern as that of Embelin but with shifted band due to presence of potassium salt. Heat-induced hemolysis &nbsp;using diclofenac as standard and embelin potassium salt as test showed &nbsp;98.01% inhibition and 92% inhibition, respectively, at50µg/ml. The &nbsp;binding affinity of diclofenac was determined to be -4.9, while the binding affinity of embelin was -5.7, indicating a higher affinity for embelin. Lastly, the drug content per gram of cream was found to be 95%, indicating the amount of active drug (embelin or embelin potassium salt) present in the cream formulation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Embelin was isolated from <em>Embeliaribes</em> berries and formulated into a herbal cream. The in-vitro studies conducted on the cream showed that it has a significant effect on inflammation . However, in–vivo studies are required for the prepared topical cream to confirm its effectiveness.</p> Badmanaban R, Maria S Padathil , Hanna Parveen, Dona Merin Joy, Shahana Majeed, Joycymol S, Dhrubo Jyoti Sen Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Design and characterisation of topical emulgel containing neem oil for its antidandruff properties <p>Emulgel is a novel drug delivery system for controlled release of drug. It is suitable for the dual release of drugs. This study focuses on the development and characterization of topical emulgel containing neem oil for its anti-dandruff properties. Neem oil is emulsified using suitable surfactant in the ratio 4:2:1 and the prepared emulsion is incorporated with Carbopol gel base in ratio1:1. A total of 5 formulations were prepared using the polymer carbopol-934. Topical emulgel of neem oil was formulated and subjected to evaluation studies such as organoleptic properties, pH, Viscosity, Spreadibility, Invitro diffusion studies, Accelerated stability studies using ultracentrifugation, SEM analysis and Invitro antifungal properties. Formulation F5 subjected to in vitro oil diffusion study had shown a total release of 65.27% after 8 hours. Korsmeyer-Peppa’s plot had shown that the mechanism of diffusion was non-fickian. Emulgel of neem oil shown zone of inhibition on invitro antifungal study using Candida albicans as fungi. Formulation F5 show highest zone of inhibition of 12mm as compared to other formulations. It was concluded that, formulation of neem oil as a semi solid dual release control emulgel formulation with a time dependant oil diffusion, also add up all the advantage of a semisolid dosage compared to liquids with optimum Spreadibility, stability, aesthetic appearance, adherence to the affected scalp area and with pH that is similar scalp.</p> Eby George, Dhanish Joseph, Abitha N Jabbar, Khansa Beegam M A, Nimisha Joseph, Mahima Francis, Anju Boban, Ann Maria Alex Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Development of implantable drug delivery system of embelin for the treatment of breast cancer <p>Embelin is a traditional herbal medicine that exhibits anti-cancer effects in human breast cancer cells. However, the therapeutic effect of Embelin as Implantable Drug Delivery System is not yet determined. Embelin is having drawbacks like poor bioavailability and toxicity in systemic circulation, so we opt for Implantable Drug Delivery System. In this study, we optimised, developed and evaluated the Implantable Drug Delivery System of Embelin as pellets. The prime objective of the study is to prolong the drug release as much as possible using a combination of naturally occurring biodegradable polymer such as Guar gum, Chitosan, Xanthan gum, Locust bean gum. In this study, integration of Embelin and Chitosan was achieved via Granulation, with the aid of Guar gum as an excipient, followed by Extrusion /spheronisation. In vitro drug release study revealed the chitosan blended Embelin loaded implant possesses a longer, yet steadier, sustained drug release behaviour than the other three bio polymeric implants. It exhibits prolonged drug release of up to nine days and Korsmeyer’s-peppas plot were exhibited.</p> Rincy. K K, Dhanish Joseph, Binsha Urumees, Ann Mariya Jose, Athira Anilan Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Comparative Insilico Docking Study Involving Antagonistic Activity of CoumarinDerivatives on EGFR and CDK2 <p>Epidemiological evidence suggests that about 25% of cancer occurs due to chronic inflammation, thus it is clear that cancer and inflammation are related. Piroxicam is the one of the drug that is used in the treatment of both cancer and inflammation, but it is having some side effects like constipation, blurring of vision ,skin rashes etc. Coumarin is having both anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity so the purpose of this study is to screen the best target among EGFR and CDK2. Docking analysis was carried out using AutoDock4.&nbsp; From the study it was found that EGFR showed better result compare to CDK2. Also methyl substitution at 8<sup>th</sup> position and chlorine substitution at 5<sup>th</sup> position of coumarin showed better activity than standard drug piroxicam and phytoconsitutents<em> isofraxidin</em>&nbsp; and<em>scopoletin</em>.</p> Riya Ann Thomas, Eva Sara Sunil, Anna Abel Fernandez, Soorya Anil, Anjana Antony, Ann Maria Davis, Godwin Thomas, Saranya T S, Greeshma Sreeram, Elizabeth Abraham P Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Assessment of patient knowledge, practice and adverse events of insulin administration and storage techniques in patients with diabetes <p>Diabetes mellitus is a group of&nbsp; metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia. For effective therapy, correct injection procedures, adequate storage, insulin dose adjustment, meal timing, site rotation, and compliance. The aim of this work is to assess the knowledge and practice of insulin administration and storage techniques in diabetes patients. It is a survey based cross sectional study conducted through&nbsp; both online and offline modes among diabetic patients consuming insulin in&nbsp; Ernakulam district. 213 cases were included and it consist of diabetic patients on insulin therapy. About 54.4% of patients were males and 45.6% patients were females. Majority 57.3% experienced hypoglycaemia and 17.3% never experienced it. 51.6% patients were educated by nurse, 25.6% by doctors and only 17.6% were educated by pharmacist. The study presented an insight into the practices of insulin administration and awareness to the diabetic patients, study also extended to other health care professionals in the society.</p> Antriya Annie Tom, Namitha Antony, Pavithra Ashok, Muhammad Abdul Khadir PS, Juhy Jojo Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of herbal aftershave gel <p>Aftershave gels are cosmetic products that may often contain alcohol which is an antiseptic agent to prevent infection of cuts, as well as to act as an astringent to reduce skin irritation. However, alcohol-based aftershave gels may be prone to cause burns or irritations. The main aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate aftershave gel with reduced alcohol content using <em>Hemigraphis colorata</em> extract. The <em>Hemigraphis colorata</em> plant possesses wound healing and anti-inflammatory actions. Ethanol was used as solvent for the extraction in our present study.&nbsp; The gel formulation F0 was made according to the conventional formula having 50% alcohol content. The second formulation F1 was the one that contains three fourth of the alcohol of the above formulation. The final gel F2 was the one with three-fourths of the quantity of alcohol mentioned in the conventional formula and having <em>Hemigraphis colorata </em>extract in the concentration 50mg/ml. Gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, and anti-bacterial properties. From the studies conducted it was concluded that the formulation used <em>Hemigraphis colorata </em>extracts showed better antimicrobial activity than the conventional “alcohol-only” formulation. So, from the study it can be concluded that plant would be a promising candidate to be used in an aftershave preparation, provided it exhibits astringent activity also.</p> Celu Mariya Francis, Riya George, Anaswara Sankar, Ancy I J, Manju Maria Mathews, Badmanaban R Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of a herbal mixture <p>Due to adverse effects of using allopathic medicines, the use and search for pharmaceuticals made from plants has increased recently. A mixture of herbal extracts known as “Chukku Kashaya” is widely used as home remedy in Kerala for respiratory disorders. Additionally, it relieves cold and fever symptoms. The present investigation focused on evaluating the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts obtained by soxhlet extraction of leaves of <em>Ocimum tenuiflorum </em>and <em>Plectranthus amboinicus</em> and fruits of <em>Piper nigrum </em>and rhizome of <em>Zingiber officinalae</em> and their combination in equal ratios and their activity was determined using agar well diffusion method against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (gram positive), <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (gram negative), and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosae</em> (gram negative). Streptomycin was used as positive control. <em>Zingiber</em> <em>officinalae</em> showed maximum zone of inhibition against all the bacteria and herbal mixture showed moderate zone of inhibition. The mixture was more active than <em>Ocimum tenuiflorum</em> , <em>Piper nigrum</em> and <em>Plectranthus amboinicus</em>. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was shown to be the most sensitive to all the extracts and herbal mixtures, whereas <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>showed the least activity. Though <em>Z.officinalae</em> has higher antimicrobial activity, there is limited literature support to prove its activity against fever, cold and other symptoms of respiratory tract infections<em>. Z.officinalae</em> is mainly used for GI related disorders. This herbal blend is more efficient because it includes of<em> O.tenuiflorum</em> : having antipyretic, analgesic and voice improving activity ;<em> P.amboinicus</em>: providing relief from cough, asthma, bronchitis and other symptoms of respiratory tract infections; <em>P. nigrum</em> which can improve appetite and digestion .</p> Deepa Jose , Sini Baby, Sujjala Subash, Gifty Lawrence, Aneesa Anoob , Linta Jose Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Efficient microwave synthesis of coumarin derivatives with evaluation of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties <p>Microwave radiation, an electromagnetic radiation, is used as a source of heating in organic synthesis. Coumarin, a benzopyrone derivative, shows various pharmacological activities such as anticoagulant, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory. The prime objective was to compare the synthesis of some coumarin derivatives by microwave assisted methods. Two different coumarin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidant activity. 3-Acetylcoumarin (3-acetyl-2H-Chromen-2- one) was synthesized by reaction with salicylaldehyde and ethyl acetoacetate in presence of piperidine and the 3-acetyl-6-bromocoumarin (3-acetyl-6-bromo-2H-chromen-2-one) was synthesized by using 5-bromo-salicyladehyde. The synthesized compounds were characterized by MP, TLC, IR and NMR. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was done by reducing power by ferric chloride, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging method. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was done by protein denaturation using BSA method. Out of the two compounds synthesized, bromine-substituted acetyl coumarin showed more anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity when compared to standard.</p> Anziya P A, SARANYA T S, ANJALI K, Anjali Krishna, Sini Baby, Divine P Daniel Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Cosmetic use related adverse events and need for cosmetovigilance <p>Cosmetics are applied to human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering appearance. Cosmetics are causing adverse events to users, yet evidence about its magnitude is limited among students due self-diagnosis and self-medication .To know about the cosmetic use related adverse events and to enhance awareness regarding cosmetovigilance among the students of Nirmala College of pharmacy, Muvattupuzha by an educational intervention. To assess the prevalence of cosmetics, use among the students of Nirmala college of pharmacy, Muvattupuzha.To identify the cosmetics related adverse events and knowledge , To improve the awareness regarding cosmetovigilance. By online survey using google form. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, demographic profile, utilization pattern, participant's experience of cosmetics-related adverse reactions for the last two awareness program about cosmetovigilance system.&nbsp; Access the knowledge of students one month after awareness.502 participants,55.2% with pimple ,55.2% with hair loss,41.4% with allergic reaction, dryness of skin, etc.</p> Merrin Joseph, Karishma Shaji, Mahin T M, Nandana P B, Krishna Das Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 A retrospective study of clinical profile of viper bite cases in selected hospitals in central kerala <p>Viper bite is a commonly occurring &nbsp;occupational health hazard to people involved mainly in agricultural sector in tropical and sub-tropical areas.&nbsp; &nbsp; The aim of the study was to assess the clinical pattern of poisonous snakebites from four selected hospitals in central Kerala.&nbsp;Study site: Carithas Hospital (Kottayam), Little Flower Hospital and Research Centre (Angamaly), Paalana Institute of Medical Sciences (Palakkad) and Charis Medical Mission (Muvattupuzha).&nbsp;Percentage of cases collected from Carithas hospital, Little Flower hospital, Paalana hospital and Charis hospital were 51.&nbsp;The various clinical profile was assessed such as Hb level , symptoms, total leukocyte count, platelet count prothrombin time etc.&nbsp;Conclusion: Practice of locally developed treatment protocol for optimised treatment of viper bite is required.</p> Anumol Saju, Antriya Annie Tom, Aby Paul, Swapna Saju, Dona Johnson, Jesyln Joe thomas, Kuttikkaden Joy Steffi, Joyal M Joll Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of herbal toothpaste containing eupatorium triplinervisleaf extract <p><em>Eupatorium triplinervis</em> (Asteraceae),popularly known as Ayapana , is widely used in folk medicine, due to its antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antianorexic, antiparasitic, anthelmintic and sedative properties. The present study was focused on evaluating the anti-bacterial action of the formulated herbal toothpaste containing <em>Eupatorium triplinerv</em><em>is</em> leaf extract and determining the best formula for preparing the toothpaste. The extraction was conducted by the soxhlet apparatus using methanol as solvent and was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was performed and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extract were reported against three organisms- <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ( gram positive),<em> E. coli </em>( gram negative) and oral flora by agar dilution assay. Also, the antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method was determined for the prepared toothpaste against all the above three bacteria. The phytochemical screening shows the presence of coumarins in the methanolic extract which were responsible for the antibacterial activity of the extract. The formulations shows considerable zoneof inhibition when compared with a marketed toothpaste formulation (Dant kanti). Thus, this toothpaste preparation has antibacterial properties and so can be used for gingivitis and other bacterial disorders of the oral cavity.</p> Vidya Peter, Rosna Babu, Sherry Sebastian, Angel Jaimon, Angel Jaimon, Anagha V T, Jeevan Sajeev Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 In vitro screening of icacinaceous plants indigenous to kerala <p>This project work was focused on “<em>in vitro </em>screening of Icacinaceous plants indigenous to Kerala”. From phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract of leaves of <em>Sarcostigma kleinii </em>it was found that carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids,tannins, phenols, glycosides are present and saponins,proteins &amp; amino acids are absent. From phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract of leaves of <em>Pyrenacantha volubilis </em>it was found that carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids,alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds are present. <em>Sarcostigma kleinii </em>leaves are used to treat helminthiasis, ulcers, leprosy and skin conditions traditionally. <em>Pyrenacantha volubilis</em>leaves are mainly used to treat cancer. The present study deals with the anti-inflammatory activity and antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of <em>Sarcostigma kleinii </em>and <em>Pyrenacantha volubilis </em>of Icacinaceae family. The results suggest that ethyl acetate extract of leaves of these two Icacinaceous plants may serve as a anti - inflammatory and antibacterial agents which may be due to the chemical constituents like alkaloids, phenols, tannins or flavonoids present in these plants<strong>.</strong></p> Elizabeth Abraham P, Frinto Francis, Pradeep R Nair, Athul Raj, Raji Rajan, Anamika K Nair, Badmanaban R Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of an antihypertensive drug <p>The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate Losartan potassium buccal films, an angiotensin receptor blocker and is used to treat hypertension. Losartan potassium is having less bioavailability (33%), so the buccal films are expected to increase the bioavailability by avoiding hepatic metabolism. Ten formulations of buccal films were prepared by solvent casting method using HPMC K15 M as the main film-forming polymer in various proportions with various co-polymers such as Eudragit RL. 100, Carbopol 940, Ethyl cellulose. Physicochemical characteristics,<em>in vitro</em> buccal permeation<em>, in vitro</em> release study and residence time were evaluated. <em>In vitro</em> studies revealed that the release rate of Losartan potassium was higher for films containing HPMC K15 M and Eudragit RL100 in 3:1 ratio. The result of stability study indicated that no significant changes have occurredduring the period of study.</p> Ashinaa Benedict, Irin Rose Paul, Manju Maria Mathews, Badmanaban R Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 A prospective survey to ascertain the symptoms, health issues and subsequent otc mediction usage during menstruation among college students <p>Up to 14 days before your period begins, you might see bulging, Migraines, temperament swings, or other physical and enthusiastic changes. These Month to month side effects are known as premenstrual disorder, or PMS. Around 85% of ladies experience some level of PMS. A couple have more serious. Manifestations that disturb work or individual connections, known as premenstrual Dysphoric problem (PMDD). The etiology of these disorders remains uncertain, Research suggests that altered regulation of neurohormones and neurotransmitters is involved.&nbsp; Study Site: college students studying in Nirmala College of pharmacy Muvattupuzha. Design: The study will be done as an online survey using Google form. The Developed questionnaire consists of knowledge of premenstrual syndrome, Quality of Life, Medication. Conclusion: Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder are Complex but highly treatable disorder and can improved by providing patient education on Premenstrual symptoms and counseling women on lifestyle interventions.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mintu George, Anagha Melbin, Mary Paul Dominic, Reshma Dominic, Aysha Saja P S, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 A cross sectional study to analyse the ADR reported in a hospital during the past three years <p>Introduction: Cross sectional study is a type of observational study that analyzes data from apopulation, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time-that is, cross sectional data. The causality appraisal is assessment of the probability that the detected adverse event is produced by a specific medication. The most commonly used causality assessment scales are Naranjo Probability Scale and the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) causality scales. The study is to analyze the adverse drug reaction reported in a hospital for the past three years. Aim: A cross sectional study to analyze the ADR reported in a hospital during the past three years. Methodology: A cross sectional observational study was conducted at Nirmala medical centre, Muvattupuzha. ADR reported in the past three years in this hospital were analyzed. Drug leading to ADR, department .gender, observed reaction, severity, Naranjo probability scale and WHO UMC causality assessment were done. Classification of drugs according to their drug class, classification of ADR according to the system, based on severity, sex, Naranjo score, WHO UMC criteria were done. The datas were analysed and represented into graphs. Result: A total of 342 ADR reports were analyzed in this study. The key findings of this study include: Skin-related ADRs were the most frequently reported, affecting 27.83% of cases. The majority of reported ADRs were of moderate severity (56.7%).Naranjo probability scale and WHO-UMC causality assessment indicated that most cases were in the probable category, with 63% and 76%, respectively. The general medicine department had the highest number of reported ADRs. Males accounted for the majority of reported ADRs (57.18%).Cardiovascular agents and antibiotics were the drug classes most commonly associated with reported ADRs, at 25.6% and 22.28%, respectively. Among cardiovascular agents, diuretics were found to be the primary culprits, causing 38.66% of reported ADRs. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of monitoring, assessing, and documenting ADRs in healthcare facilities, as it provides valuable insights into the prevalence, severity, and causality of adverse drug reactions. This information can contribute to improving patient safety and the rational use of medications in clinical practice.</p> Sangeetha Sukumaran, Varsha Elizabeth Joby, Amala Joseph Joseph, Aparna Jestin, Jithin N P, Sumayya B Muhammed, Sunu Sebastian, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of preungual delivery system containing eugenol for the treatment of onychomycosis <p>The purpose of the study was to formulate a Preungual delivery system containing Eugenol for the treatment of Onychomycosis. And to find out the best polymer concentration, concentration of penetration enhancers and to carry out the anti-fungal testing on the best formulation obtained. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out in Franz diffusion cell using phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and methanol as medium, whereas the permeation studies were carried out using hooves membrane. The percentage of cumulative drug released was determined by a UV spectrophotometer. The formulation containing 10% w/v of ethyl cellulose along with 2.5%w/v thioglycolic acid and 2.5 %v/v of dimethyl sulfoxide showed a good release. Eugenol nail lacquer's sensitivity against <em>Candida albicans</em> was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition by comparing it with a standard drug. The formulation showed a zero-order release pattern and the Higuchi model for the mechanism of release.</p> Mini Elias, Flowerlet Mathew, Gourisree T, Anila Rajan, Ashly Davis Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of floating controlled drug delivery of anti-ulcer drug loaded microballoons <p>An attempt has been made to develop floating drug delivery system for improving the drug bioavailability by prolongation of gastric residence time of Famotidine in the stomach. The floating microballoons were prepared using polymer Eudragit RS100, HPMC K100M and Ethyl Cellulose. Famotidine was used as the model drug. Nine formulations (F1 to F9) were prepared by varying the ratio of polymers. The prepared Famotidine loaded micro balloons were characterized for percentage yield, particle size analysis, surface morphology, micromeritic properties, drug entrapment efficiency, buoyancy studies and in-vitro drug release. The formulated micro balloons were free flowing. The micro balloons with Eudragit RS100 showed higher buoyancy when compared with HPMC K100M and Ethyl Cellulose. On the basis of micromeritic properties, particle size, percentage yield, morphology, buoyancy study, drug entrapment, optimum in-vitro drug release and satisfactory release kinetics, formulation F2 was selected as an optimum formulation</p> Bindumol K C, Flowerlet Mathew, Shalom Sunil, Angel Jose Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Preparation and evaluation of floating drug delivery system (fdds) containing an antiviral drug <p>Acyclovir, an antiviral drug has low oral bioavailability of about 15-30%. It shows more absorption in the upper gastro intestinal tract. The main objective is to evaluate the potential of floating alginate beads as a drug carrier for acyclovir to prolong gastric residence time of drug in its absorption window. Floating beads were prepared from sodium alginate solution containing CaCO<sub>3</sub> as gas-forming agent using Ionotropic gelation method. To overcome the limitation of drug leaching during preparation and to have improved sustained release characteristics, alginate beads were prepared with the addition of polymers like Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M), Eudragit RL 100 and Xanthan gum. Beads were also prepared by using Pectin (polyelectrolyte) containing cross linking solution. The compatibility of drug with the polymer was confirmed through the FT-IR studies. The prepared beads were evaluated for percentage drug loading, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology and in vitro release characteristics to know the effect of addition of these polymers to alginate solution and the addition of Pectin to cross linking solution. Pectin treated beads prepared with Xanthan gum &amp; Pectin not only showed improved percentage drug loading but also exhibited sustained drug release in the pH 1.2. So these floating alginate beads may act as a promising carrier for acyclovir to improve its oral bioavailability.</p> Teena Mohan, Mariya Sunny, Manju Maria Mathews, Badmanaban R Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of controlled porosity oral osmotic pump tablets of furosemide <p>Oedema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body which can cause severe pain. Furosemide has been shown to be effective and safe in patients with hypertension and/ or coronary heart disease. Osmotic pump tablets deliver the drug in an optimized manner to maintain drug concentration within the therapeutic window and minimize toxic effects. The major objective of the study was to prepare and evaluate oral controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets of furosemide, to reduce the dosing frequency and thereby side effects, and to release the drug for a prolonged period in a controlled manner that is independent of pH and hydrodynamic activity. Pre-formulation studies and pre-compression parameters of tablet blends of osmotic pump tablets of furosemide were carried out. Oral-controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets of furosemide were prepared and subjected to different evaluation tests. Precompression parameters indicated that granules have a good flow property. All the formulations showed good mechanical strength. All the nine formulations showed a drug release of more than 60% in the 12<sup>th</sup> hour. Optimised formulation showed a drug release of 99.21% in 12<sup>th </sup>hr. Stability studies conducted indicate that the product is stable.</p> Teena Chackochen Thekkal, Reba Renju, Manju Maria Mathews, Badmanaban R Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Formulation and evaluation of topical gels incorporated with solid dispersions of an antiinflammatory drug <p>Formulation and development of a most effective product from poorly soluble drugs is one of the most challenging tasks in pharmaceutical industries. Solid dispersion is an efficient solubility enhancement method to overcome the solubility problem. The aim of this study was to formulate topical gels incorporated with solid dispersion of Aceclofenac to enhance permeability through the skin. Aceclofenac solid dispersions were prepared using suitable hydrophilic carriers to increase its aqueous solubility. In this study, solid dispersions of Aceclofenac were prepared by solvent evaporation and co-grinding method with two different hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVPk-30), and HPMC E15 LV. These were used in the ratio of (drug: carrier) 1: 1, 1:2 &amp; 1:3 respectively. Evaluation parameters for formulation optimization were drug content, percentage practical yield, DSC, , in-vitro dissolution studies &amp; FTIR. The optimized SD (F3) solid dispersion is incorporated in topical gels of different concentrations prepared by using two gelling agents such as Carbopol 934 and HPMC K100M. From the results of in-vitro dissolution studies it was found that formulation F3 containing PVP k30 (1 : 3 ratio of drug: PVP k30) shows a higher dissolution rate compared with other formulations and pure drug. Optimized solid dispersion was incorporated into topical gels prepared by using two gelling agents in different concentrations. From the stability data obtained, no significant changes in physical appearance, viscosity, pH, and drug contents were seen. The present research work could be concluded as a successful production of topical gels incorporated with Aceclofenac solid dispersion. Improvement in aqueous solubility and thereby greater skin permeation is expected</p> Sethu Lekshmi, Therase Jose, Manju Maria Mathews, Badmanaban R Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 In vitro anti-bacterial screening of drynariya quercifolia <p>Purpose: To make scientific validation with antibacterial activity of ethnomedical fern <em>Drynaria quercifolia</em></p> <p>Method and results: The various rhizome extracts were prepared with different solvents&nbsp;&nbsp; like benzene, Ethyl acetate, chloroform, Ethanol, water and their percentage yield were identified as 7,3,2.3,3.1&amp;6.4 respectively and analytical parameters and histological studies undergone with this fern. Various preliminary phytoconstituent screening was carried out and the ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum presence of active constituents. Bacterial activity was screened with (gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and the zone of inhibition was measured. Compared with standard Ampicillin (250µgm) and ethyl acetate was more active and most effective against <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>.</p> <p>Conclusion: In the antibacterial study ethyl acetate extract shows good antibacterial activity even in microgram quantities. It is found to be very effective against <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>. From the studies we have concluded that <em>Drynaria quercifolia</em> can be effectively used as an anti-bacterial agent.</p> Ashna T, Lins Mary Joy, Siyara Antony, Sindu T J, Sheeba Mol P, Shiji T S, Soumya K George Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Guillain-barre syndrome: a paediatric case scenario in a tertiary care hospital at southern India <p><strong>Background: </strong>During hospital ward rounds which was conducted as a part of Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum at Caritas Hospital, Thellakom, the first author got a chance to deal with a case of GBS.</p> <p><strong>Case:</strong>12 year old female patient admitted with complaints of weakness on both legs; later diagnosed by the neurologist with demyelinating poly neuropathy and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. <strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this particular study was to study more about Guillain-Barre Syndrome which is an auto immune disorder involving peripheral nervous system which usually occurring very rarely, affects 1.55 people per 100,000 in the world’s population, and is characterised by flaccid paralysis of limbs. It typically happens as a result of an earlier illness or other triggering events that excite the immune system of the body and result in the development of various antibodies.&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Analyse various case reports published in various scientific databases like PubMed, Medline, CrossRef etc.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This particular case was treated as follows: The treatment involves intravenous infusion of IVIg at a dose which varies according to the weight and severity of condition in each individual. Supplementation with Methyl cobalamin, Alpha lipoic acid, Levo-carnitine, and Vitamin E can improve the neural health and hasten the healing of nerve injuries.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Data till now tells us that out of all GBS diagnosed population, 80% have recovered completely, 15% of patients have shown some neurological disabilities, and 5% have succumb to death. Here, the therapy was successful and the patient got discharged from hospital.&nbsp;</p> Nevin Joseph, Alfin Baby, Eldhose Elias George, Gopikrishnan T S, Merrin Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530