The Journal of Multidisciplinary Research <p>The Journal of Multidisciplinary Research</p> en-US <p>Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.</p> (Managing Editor) Sun, 04 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Design, Formulation, and Evaluation of Lisinopril Mucoadhesive Buccal Patches by Using the Combination of Natural Polymers <p>The main objective of present investigation to formulate and evaluate mucoadhesive buccal patches of Lisinopril using solvent casting method. Sodiumalginate combined with Sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose, HPMC, and Carbopol934 in different proportions were used as a mucoadhesive polymer and Propyleneglycol used as a plasticizer as well as penetration enhancers. The formulated Buccal patches of Lisinopril were evaluated on the basis of Thickness, Weight uniformity, folding endurance, swelling Studies, Surface pH Determination, Percentage Moisture loss, Drug content Uniformity, Ex-Vivo Mucoadhesive strength, In Vitro Drug Release, Ex- vivo permeation study. By compatibility study there is no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used. All prepared buccal patches were transparent, smooth, consistent and flexible. The surface pH of all formulations was found to be almost in neutral pH and no mucosal irritation was expected. Among all the formulations, F6 showed maximum swelling index as 25.01%. The optimized formulation F6 also showed satisfactory, Mucoadhesive strength (5.1kg/cm2), drug content (98.75), and Ex-Vivo permeation (82.03%). In-Vitro drug release of optimised formulation (F6) was found to be 75.12 at the end of 8 hrs. Drug release mechanism was determined by plotting release data to Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas model. All the formulations are best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model and according to this model the drug releases from theses patches may be controlled by diffusion with super case-II transport.</p> Dr. Hima Bindu G, Surya SK , Umasankar K, Kishore Babu M Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Hima Bindu G, Surya SK , Dr. Umasankar K. , Dr. Kishore Babu M. Sun, 04 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Environmental clearance and sustainable development: changing paradigm of environmental constitutionalism in India <p>Environmental Clearance (EC) to operate in any industry or establishment is firmly accepted across the globe. It is issued after complying with four stages of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) namely screening, scoping, public hearing and appraisal. It stipulates the precautionary conditions to operate (CTO) an industry without causing environmental hazards deploying all necessary environmental protection measures. The MoEF&amp;CC issues EC in India, directly or through its regional authorities. In recent decisions, the Supreme Court of India has allowed post-EC to some of the MSMEs that were operating without EC on account of ignorance of the law on the part of the owner as well as the State Pollution Control Board (SPCB). The post-EC has been permitted to remove procedural irregularity by applying the ‘proportionality principle’ on account of MSME’s contribution to the national economy and livelihood to a significant size of the populace. This research paper finds post-EC anathema to the sustainable development principles.</p> Saman Narayan Upadhyay, Milendra Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Saman Narayan Upadhyay, Milendra Singh Fri, 09 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 THE Point prevalence of acetylcholinesterase inhibition, neuropathy and safety awareness among flower farm workers in naivasha, nakuru county, kenya. <p>Acetyl cholinesterase catalyses the hydrolysis of acetylcholine in the nerve synapses, thereby terminating nerve impulse, however, it is inhibited by organophosphates and carbamates. This study aimed to assess the level of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition and the resultant neuropathy in flower farm workers as well as the farmers’ awareness of safety measures and predisposing factors while handling pesticides. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 217 participants from different flower farms. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data to assess level of safety and predisposing awareness and to assess for neuropathy. Blood samples were collected to determine the cholinesterase levels using spectrophotometry technique at 405 nm. The mean serum cholinesterase level in flower farm workers in Naivasha was 5873.26 U/L. There was a positive correlation (R= 0.07) between the numbers of years worked in the industry and serum cholinesterase levels as shown by Karl Pearson`s coefficient. The point prevalence of cholinesterase inhibition in Naivasha was 14% indicating a significant risk of adverse health effects. The level of safety awareness and predisposing factors among workers on pesticide exposure was 65%, suggesting that while the majority of workers had some level of safety awareness, there is still room for improvement. The point prevalence of neuropathy was 38% of the participants presenting with varying symptoms of adverse effects of pesticide exposure. Musculoskeletal impairment was leading at 19.81%, followed by skin irritation at 13.36%.These findings highlighted the need for better safety measures and awareness campaigns in the flower farm industry to reduce the risk of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition.</p> Scholastica Mathenge, Patroba Ojola, Hannah Wanjiru Mwangi Copyright (c) 2024 Hannah Mwangi Tue, 05 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A STUDY ON THE CAUSES OF SEPARATE STATE DEMAND IN NORTH EAST INDIAN STATE OF TRIPURA <p>This article explores the socio-political dynamics and historical context leading to the demand for a separate state of Tipraland within Tripura, India, focusing on the indigenous Tiprasa peoples' aspirations for autonomy and cultural preservation. Originating from the establishment of the Indigenous People's Front of Twipra (IPFT) in 2009, the demand for Tipraland reflects a culmination of historical grievances, including the failure of the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) to meet the indigenous community's needs, demographic shifts due to refugee influx from neighboring Bangladesh, and the erosion of indigenous cultural and linguistic identity. The article analyzes how these factors have contributed to a sense of alienation and marginalization among the Tiprasa people, further fueled by land alienation, linguistic hegemony, and political underrepresentation. It discusses the recent political developments under the leadership of Bubagra Prodyot Kishore Manikya and the formation of the TIPRA Motha party, highlighting their significant role in revitalizing the demand for a more inclusive Greater Tipraland. The study concludes with recommendations for the Government of India to address the complex interplay of refugee integration, indigenous rights, and regional autonomy to ensure the socio-political and economic wellbeing of the indigenous populations within a cohesive national framework. Through this analysis, the article contributes to the broader discourse on indigenous rights, migration, and state formation in northeast India, emphasizing the need for inclusive policies that recognize the unique challenges and aspirations of indigenous communities.</p> Marconi Debbarma Copyright (c) 2024 Marconi Debbarma Tue, 26 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530